Abstract: This study was performed to investigate the clinical effects of ketamine, diazepam and ketamine/diazepam combination in general anesthesia. Total of 32 pigeons with body weigth ranged from 280-300 g were randomly designed in four groups with 8 birds. In the group D:0.5 mL mixture of diazepam (0.2 mg kg-1) and normal saline. In the group K:0.5 mL mixture of ketamine 5% (30 mg kg-1) and normal saline. In the group KD:0.5 mL combination of ketamine 5% (10 mg kg-1), diazepam (0.2 mg kg-1) and normal saline and in the group C:0.5 mL of normal saline was administered intramuscularly. Standard thermal conditions of operating room demonstrated that general anesthesia have not been observed in group C. In group D, sedative effect and a muscle relaxation of diazepam without complete loss of general anesthesia was observed. Onset time of anesthesia in group KD was significantly quicker than group K (p<0.05). Duration of anesthesia in group KD was significantly higher than group K (p<0.05). Recovery was longer in group KD as compared to group K but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The birds in group KD were calm and sedated with more muscle relaxation during the study but in group K the birds were excited and behavioral incoordination and also drop of temperature were recorded. The results of this study showed that the combination of ketamine HCL by low dose and diazepam overcome the side effects of ketamine alone and caused more rapid induction, increase in duration of anesthesia, smooth and slow recovery and more muscle relaxation. Use of ketamine HCL 10 mg kg-1 + diazepam 0.2 mg kg-1 for current anesthesia in pigeons is recommended.
A. Azizpour and Y. Hassani, 2012. Clinical Evaluation of General Anesthesia with a Combination of Ketamine HCL and Diazepam in Pigeons. Agricultural Journal, 7: 101-105.