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Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences
Year: 2010 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 6 | Page No.: 437-440
DOI: 10.3923/pjssci.2010.437.440  
The Relationship Between Principals Supervisory Strategies and Teacher’s Instructional Performance in Delta North Senatorial District, Nigeria
N. Osakwe Regina
 
Abstract: The study investigated the relationship between principal’s supervisory strategies and teacher’s instructional performance in terms of some variables such as teaching materials and discipline maintenance. The population comprised all the 192 principals and 3492 teachers in Delta north senatorial district. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at alpha level of significance of 0.05. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 92 principals and 349 teachers. The face and content validity of the instrument (questionnaire) was established and the reliability coefficient® value was 0.78 showing that the instrument was reliable. The data collected was analyzed using the Chi-square statistical tool, the results revealed that there was a significant relationship between principal’s performance with regards to teaching materials and discipline maintenance based on the findings and conclusion, it was recommended that adequate fetching materials should be provide for teachers effectiveness in the teaching-learning process.
 
 

INTRODUCTION

In the school system, supervision is as antique as the teaching profession and has undergone series of evolution since the colonial era, it is directed towards sustaining and ameliorating the teaching-learning process in the educational system, this is because education plays an essential in the growth and development of any nation socially, politically, economically and this explains why it has country and the entire world. Instructional supervision is the art of over-seeing the teaching-learning process, therefore making sure that the school is administered, managed and leads in an effective manner to achieve the educational objectives.

The principal holds the major position in the programme of instructional improvement through effective and efficient supervision of teachers instructional performance through various supervisory techniques, the principal is thus faced with the responsibility of supervising teachers generally to improve their instructional effectiveness make recommendations and also manage both human and material resources towards achieving the principal as the head of the school is the architect of the quality of activities in the school and the quality of academic achievement of students depends on the quality of instruction given by teachers. Thus, it becomes peremptory that principals supervisory functions must be adequately to influence teachers instructional performance. This desired expectation in education could be achieved through effective supervision since it creates the awareness of sound education philosophies in teachers.

Principals supervise and monitor the work and behaviour of teachers, inorder to improve individual teachers competencies no matter how proficient they are deemed to be and provide students with quality learning.

The duty of ensuring that effective teaching and learning take place lies with the principal who employs various instructional performance. Thus, Nnabuo (1996) emphasized that the quality of instruction and the use of supervisory functions of principals in schools depend on the extent to which teachers perform their tasks. Effective supervision and the extent to which principals carry out their supervisory duties are based on sound principles which serve as a directive to positive actions that are aimed at improving teaching-learning process in the school system. Such principles include:

The principle of co-operation which ensures the articulation and integration supervisor (principal) and the supervisee (teacher)
The principle of flexibility calls for innovations as it increases and sustains the quality of teaching and learning
The principle of democracy which encourages good atmosphere of interaction and interrelationship between the supervisor (principal) and supervisee (teacher). This principle is consistent with the contention that human beings react more favourably when their opinion is sought

In the school system instructional supervision is concerned with using methods, principles and practices of various techniques to establish, develop and execute the goals, policies, plans and procedures necessary to achieve educational goals. Supervision therefore is concerned with the provision of professional assistance and guidance to teachers and students geared towards the achievement of effective teaching and learning in the school.

According to Rettig (2007) supervision provides opportunities for teachers to be groomed through discursive critical study of classroom interaction to carry out their teaching tasks in line with professional codes of conduct. If schools are not supervised adequately, it will have inimical effects on the students and the educational aim may not be achieved, therefore various instructional supervisory techniques should be applied. Many principals in the secondary schools ignore the supervision of instruction and this may lead to teachers poor instructional performance in schools. Supervision is thus directed towards sustaining and ameliorating the teaching-learning process by keeping records of teachers and students in schools. The philosophy underlying supervision is that all human beings in the educational system whether students, teachers, principals, administrators or supervisors are individuals of worth endowed with unique talents and capabilities. Infact supervision according to National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) is meant to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous monitoring of instructional and educational service. The principal oversees the activities of both teaching and non-teaching staff in the school system using various supervisory techniques ensuring that they conform to the generally accepted principles of education. He also sees that high standards are maintained in the school in accordance with laid down rules and regulations.

To Ojogwu (2001), supervision creates the awareness of sound education philosophies in teachers and makes them to be aware of educational policies and reforms in schools. Nakpodia (2006) defined supervision as that part of school administration which has particular pertinence for the appropriateness of instructional expectation (products) of educational programmes. Furthermore, Akinwumi (2002) sees supervision as all efforts of designated school officials towards providing leadership to teachers and non-teaching staff aiming at the improvement of instruction. It involves the stimulation of instruction. It involves the stimulation of professional growth and development of teachers, a selection and revision of educational objectives, materials of instruction methods of teaching and the evaluation of instruction. Emuakpo stated that when the principal is effective, the teachers become adequate and competent in the practice of their profession and the students have greater chances of getting the kind of education they need to play their roles in the society.

In conclusion, the principal supervises his heads of departments and teachers by checking their scheme of work and lesson notes making sure they go to classes, regularly, checking absenteeism, rewarding hardworking teachers and punishing indolent ones assigning administrative duties to them and encouraging them to do the right things at the right time. He provides the materials for effective discharge of assigned duties and he encourages experimentation. All these are inputs into the quality of the educational systems.

Statement of problem: In the school system, supervision is considered to be the major planks of any strategy to improved the quality and standard of teaching-learning process. It is a dynamic function involving and stimulating the teachers while evaluating their performance with an ultimate view to improve the entire teaching learning situation. Teachers work in unconducive classroom environment and their salaries are poor and irregular. This appalling economic strength make them to look beyond their monthly stipend by engaging in several businesses, hence many teachers put up non-challant attitude to their teaching an some of them play truant. Also teachers low esteem on the eyes of the society and lack of self esteem by the teachers constitute problems of indiscipline among them. Such indiscipline acts are lateness to class school, absenteeism, trading during school hours, ineffective use of diaries and lesson notes in the class, records are hot properly kept and generally violating teachers code of professional ethics. All these make teachers incompetent and not dedicated to duty, unless the principal runs after them. Therefore the statement of the problem put in a question form is: What it is relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance interms with the use of teaching aids and in maintaining discipline?

Hypothesis: The hypotheses below were formulated and tested to guide the study as follows:

There is no significant relationship between principal’s supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance with the use of teaching materials
There is no significant relationship between principal’s supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance in maintaining discipline

Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of principals supervision strategies and teachers instructional performance. Specifically the study will analyze the following:

The effect between principal’s supervision strategies and teachers instructional performance with the use of teaching materials
The effect between principal’s supervision strategies and teachers instructional performance in maintaining discipline

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The survey method was adopted for the study. This study was correlation in nature because it sought to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The population of the study comprises all the principals (192) and teachers (3492) in Delta North Senatorial district. The sample was made up of 92 principals and 349 teachers which were selected using the multi-stage sampling technique. Structured questionnaire with scoring order of Strongly Agreed (SA) = 4, Agree (A) = 3, Disagree (D) = 2 and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1 was used to collected data from the subjects. The face and content validity of the instrument was established. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was established using the Cronobach Alpha and the value was 0.78. the collected data was analyzed using the Chi-square statistical technique and tested at alpha level of significance of 0.05.

RESULTS

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance with the use of teaching materials. Table 1 showed that χ2 calculated value of 4.11 is greater than the χ2 critical value of 3.84. Thus, the null hypothesis of no significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance with the use of teaching materials is rejected. This implies that there is a significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance with the use of teaching materials.

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance in terms of discipline and maintenance.


Table 1: Chi-square (χ2) analysis showing the relationship of principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance with the use of teaching materials

Table 2: Chi-square (χ2) analysis showing the relationship of principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance in terms of discipline and maintenance

In Table 2, the calculated Chi-square of 4.77 was greater than the critical χ2 value of 3.84. Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected. This shows a significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance in terms of discipline and maintenance.

DISCUSSION

This study tested two hypothesis on the relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance. Hypothesis one which states that there is no significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance in terms of teaching materials was rejected. The findings of this study is in accordance with the view of Akinwumi (2002) that instructional materials are indispensable in teaching as they will help teachers perform effectively in their job. Therefore, adequate teaching depends largely on principals supervisory strategies coupled with the availability and usage of teaching aids as they facilitate the understanding of abstract concepts and provide opportunity for the learners to manipulate objects in the classroom.

The result of hypothesis two revealed that there was a significant relationship teachers instructional performance in terms of discipline and maintenance. This study is in line with Rettig (2007) who stated that supervision provides opportunities for teachers to be groomed through discursive critical study of classroom interaction to carry out their teaching tasks in line with professional code of conduct.

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that teaching materials facilitate teaching-learning process by giving the learners opportunity to understand abstract concepts and manipulate objects in the classroom. Thus, adequate teachers instructional performance depends on the availability and usage of teaching materials. There is a significant relationship between principals supervisory strategies and teachers instructional performance in terms of discipline and maintenance. Thus discipline helps to promote teachers instructional performance in the classroom.

RECOMMENDATIONS

From the result of the findings and the conclusions reached, it was recommended that:

The government should provide teaching materials to schools and teachers should adequately use the various teaching materials supplied effectively in the process of teaching to promote learning
Discipline which involves self-control, training of the mind or body, self-respect and subject to rules and regulation of authority should be the watch-word for teachers in their job performance. Thus, it (discipline) is one of the most important criteria for knowing teachers worth