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The Social Sciences
Year: 2009 | Volume: 4 | Issue: 4 | Page No.: 374-381
A Model of Effective Competency in Health and Physical Education Teacher Development in Small Schools in Educational Service Area Office of Udonthani 1
Wanit Nirantranon and Boonchom Srisa-Ard
 
Abstract: This research was aimed to create a model in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools and evaluate the model of effective competency in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools in Educational Service Area Office of Udonthani 1. In this study, we will use ESAOU. The research processing consisted of 3 phases, which were: to study the actual condition, problems, needs of teachers in small schools, to create a model in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools and to carry out the model of effective competency in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools in Educational Service Area Office of Udonthani 1 with 20 teachers. The model of effective competency in teacher development in small schools comprised 3 activities, Training, Coaching and Self-learning. In addition, after taking the model of effective competency in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools in Educational Service Area Office of Udonthani 1 with 20 teachers, it indicated that the post-achievement was higher than the pre-achievement, which is statistically significant at level 0.01.
 
 

INTRODUCTION

Health and physical education, especially physical education, are subjects that students enjoy learning, since health and physical education are child centered education (Rooncharoen, 2006). However, the results of this research indicated that small schools in Educational Service Area office of Udonthani 1, which includes 5 provinces namely Sakolnakorn, Nongbualumphu, Loei, Nongkhai and Udonthani have unqualified health and physical education teachers by 98.30%. According to the first evaluation report of basic education (2001-2005) of the office for national education standards and quality assessment, the capability in managing the effective education, which emphasize student centered with high quality tend to be quite low. The small schools tend to have the lowest quality.

In the fiscal year 2008, small schools in Educational Service Area of Udonthani 1 have 84 schools. Seven schools have <40 students; 13 schools have between 41-60 students; 17 schools have between 61-80 students; 28th schools have 81-100 students and 19 schools have 101-120 students. All small schools have no qualified health and physical education teacher.

Mc Clelland (1973) indicates that competency means the inner individual characteristics, which can drive that person to have a good performance or perform at an acceptable standard of responsibility. He, also emphasizes that an individual would need to be evaluated heavily on individual competency instead of individual intelligence, which is easier to be observed and measured. He performed a study comparing systematic working behavior of good quality worker and lower quality worker in order to specify what the causes of working success are. There was later interesting in the methodology of specifying the key work and service competencies (Boyatzis, 1982; Kenneth, 2000; Klemp, 1980; Spencer and Spencer, 1993; Winterton and Winterton, 1999; Bai-Chuan et al., 2006; Ovaska, 2007; Meisinger, 2007; Yasemin, 2003).

At this moment, the clear definition of competency has not been clarified and accepted since there are many words, which have similar meaning of competency such as competence, core competencies, capacity, capability and proficiency. In general, the competency means the group of inner individual characteristics, which drive that individual to express themselves in the situation and lead to achieving good job performance, improving the standard, or gaining more efficiency (Boyatzis, 1982; Kenneth, 2000; Klemp, 1980; Spencer and Spencer, 1993; Charland and Leclair, 2007; Powell, 2007; Davis et al., 2004; Grigoryev, 2006; Brown and McCartney, 2003; Grossman, 2007).

To enhance, the competency of teacher in health and physical education in small schools in Educational Service Area of Udonthani 1, it is important to select the competency which can be developed in short period of time due to the urgent and importance of solving the national education system problem. Moreover, the job position of government officer is limited due to the government policy.

With the problem, importance, necessary and limitation of education management in small school, it is extremely important to develop the existing teachers. Therefore, this research aims to study how to efficiently develop teacher competency in health and physical education in small schools in Educational Service Area of Udonthani 1.

Theoretical conceptual framework: The researcher studied applicable concepts and theories and used them as a research conceptual framework. The framework was made up of 6 groups:

Group 1: Competency theories of McFarland (2001); Education Review Office (2000); Clare (1992); Sottipan (2007); Russameechot (2007) and Kuna-Apisit (2004).

Group 2: Teacher development Model (SIPPA), S (Self Learning); I (Interaction); P (Participation); P (Process and Product) and A (Application).

Group 3: The problems of teachers in small schools of: the training did not match with the needs; lacking of media and budget; inappropriate teacher development system; the training programs did not include all the teachers and insufficient teachers.

Group 4: Teacher development process of Rycus and Hughas (2000), Education Review Office (2000), Connelly (2002), Bullough (2001) and Thomas and Knezek (1991).

Group 5: Theory of change behavior and educational development of McFarland (2001); Kurt (1951); Bennis (1989); Robert (1967); McNeil (1990); Bruner (1971); Piaget and Vygotsky; participatory learning; process learning and system theory.

And group 6 research of Thomas and Knezek (1991), Bullough (2001), Watkins (2000), Craig (2003) and Kuna-Apisit (2004).

The theoretical conceptual framework could be summarized as shown in Fig. 1 and 2.

Purpose: The aims of this research were as follows:

To study and analyze teacher’s problems in small schools



Fig. 1:

Theoretical conceptual framework of the model of effective competency in health

Fig. 2:

Techniques and competencies in the model of effective competency of teacher development in health and physical education in small schools


To develop the model in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools

To evaluate the model of effective competency in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools in Educational Service Area Office of Udonthani 1

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Phase 1: To study the actual condition, problems, needs.

First step: To study current situation of problems and needs for health and physical education in small schools in ESAOU.

The methods for the first step were as follows:

Structured interview

Survey

Second step: To study the needs of teachers concerning the competency that need to be developed in order to use in health and physical education in small schools in ESAOU.

The methods for the second step were as follows:

Structured interview

Focus group

Phase 2: To make the temporary model and develop the model in health and physical education teacher development in small schools.

Third step: To create a model of effective competency in health and physical education teacher development in small schools in ESAOU (draft).

The methods for the third step were as follows:

Content analysis

To make a curriculum for training (74 h, totally 9 days)

To make an achievement test, handbook, lesson plan for training

IOC: index of item objective congruence

Forth step: To develop the model in health and physical education in small schools.

The method for the forth step was to synthesize the model in health and physical education of small schools with 5 groups of 17 experts consisted of as follows:

Two regional policy makers

Four health and physical education experts

Three pre-service health and physical education teacher curriculum administrators

Three health and physical education graduate users

Five health and physical education teacher advisors

Phase 3: To carry out the model of effective competency in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools in ESAOU.

Fifth step: To carry out the model of effective competency in health education and physical education teacher development in small schools in ESAOU.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The current situation of problems and needs for health and physical education in small schools in ESAOU

In the fiscal year 2008, small schools which are under the Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment in ESAOU have totally 84 schools. Forty-one small schools are in Muang district account for 48.81%. Twenty-three schools are in Phen District account for 27.38%. Twelve schools are in Nong-wor-sor district account for 14.29%. Finally, 8 schools are Sarng-Com district account for 9.52%

In the fiscal year 2008, the number of teachers and management team in small schools, which are under the office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment in ESAOU can be grouped as follows: 27 schools have 6 staffs account for 32.14%; 20 schools have 7 staffs account for 23.81%; 17 schools have 5 staffs account for 20.24%; 13 schools have 4 staffs account for 15.48%; 6 schools have 3 staffs account for 7.14% and 1 school has 2 staffs account for 1.19%

In the fiscal year 2008, the number of students in small schools, which are under the Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment in ESAOU can be grouped as follows: 16 schools have 81-90 students account for 19.05%; 14 schools have 101-110 students account for 16.67%; 12 schools have 91-100 students account for 14.29%; 9 schools have 71-80 students account for 10.71%; 8 schools have 61-70 students account for 9.52%

The problems of teachers in small schools, which are under the Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment in ESAOU are as follows:

Lack of modern instructional media and budget to produce the media

Lack of motivation to work

Insufficient teachers, especially in small schools where one teacher has to take care of >1 classroom

Low salary and benefits

Inappropriate teacher development system

The training programs did not include all the teachers

The training did not match with the needs

Document activities are burden to the teachers due to small number of teachers

Frequently change the management team

Most students come from poor family

The management often focuses on building facility development instead of student quality

Needs of teachers concerning to the competency that need to be developed in order to use in health and physical education in small schools in ESAOU

The competencies that teachers wanted to develop themselves are:

The first group of competency is to be an excellent teacher as follows:

Having love, faith and pride of being a teacher in health and physical education

Finding the value of health activities, health development and health maintenance

Having an exercise program

Having service mind in health and physical education for students and others

The second group of competency is having knowledge and management skills in health and physical education as the following:

Having knowledge and skills in education management for students to develop themselves in physical, mind, emotion and social

Having knowledge and skills in education management for students to play sports following the rules

Having knowledge and skills in education management for students to develop skills in health and sport science

Having knowledge and skills in education management for students to have good health and good quality of life

A model of effective competency in health and physical education teacher development in small schools in ESAOU (Fig. 3)

Coaches observe trained teachers behavior in health and physical education

Coaches observe trained teacher’s behavior in physical education teaching-learning activities are at the highest overall

Teacher’s preparation is the most suitable especially the objectives which respond to the knowledge management plan correctly

Teaching-learning process is very suitable for class management on introductory phase, students can do the activities well and safely on practice phase, the activities management respond to both teaching skill and practice phase, student enjoy the activities on skill laboratory phase and trained teachers are able to evaluate the abilities of students according to objectives on closing phase

Trained teachers are able to control classes well, create an environment and also be interested in students

Trained teacher’s personality are confident, responsible, mature and coorperative with administrators or coaching

Coaches observing of trained teacher’s behavior in health education teaching-learning activities are at the highest overall



Fig. 3:

A model of effective competency of teacher development in health and physical education in small schools in ESAOU



Fig. 4:

The procedure of an effective competency model in health and physical education teacher development in small schools


The buildings and media are appropriate for learning and the number of learner

Trained teacher can explain clearly, reinforce and motivate their students to participate in activities and express their ideas, create an environment that fosters learning and update themselves on teaching-learning activities

Analysis of an effective competency in health and physical education in small schools in ESAOU

Group students view of trained teachers competencies are at the highest level as follow:

Act as good health and physical education teacher

Advice the other teachers to know about the method and how to exercise

Can mange health and physical education course material efficiently

Have learning-sharing in health and physical education provision with other schools

Have health and sport science skills

Group of trained teachers’ view of trained teachers competencies are as follows:

Act as good health and physical education teacher

Have learning-sharing in health and physical education provision with other schools

Advice the other teachers to know about the method and how to exercise

Explain the advantage or disadvantage in exercise to the others

Have health and sport science skills

Learning-sharing in sports for health and sport science development and health and physical education teacher’s tradition

Explain the advantage or disadvantage in health and sport science development and health and physical education teacher’s tradition to the others

Group of coaching’s view of trained teachers’ competencies are as follow:

Act as good health and physical education teacher

Advice the other teachers to know about the method and how to exercise

Explain the advantage or disadvantage in exercise to the others

Can manage health and physical education course material efficiently

Have health and sport science skills

Group of administrators and the other teachers view of trained teachers competency that they can manage health and physical education course material efficiently

The procedure of An effective competency Model in health and physical education teacher development in small schools should consist of follow:

Principles

Purposes

Mechanism for Process

Procedure of the model

Condition to success

Line of the trained teacher

The procedure as shown in Fig. 4.

CONCLUSION

The evaluation of coaching found that the trained teachers had abilities to manage their teaching-learning process which was appropriate to all indicators at the highest level and the student group, trained teacher group, teacher group, coaching group and administrator group had a high opinion of trained teachers as being excellent teacher and having knowledge management in health education and physical education at the highest level.