In Malaysia, drugs were named as nations number one enemy in 1983 and
ever since, the fight against drugs was conducted aggressively by widen the
awareness scope at all age level, throughout. At the same time, the drug abuse
problem spreads fast in tandem with nations social development. Drugs
have becoming a threat, not only to an individual or family; it is also a threat
to the country (Mahmood et al., 1999). Although,
drug treatment and rehabilitation programme in Malaysia has been introduced
since, 1975 to help rehabilitate addicts from drug abuse, the number of relapsed
addictions continue to show significant increase since, its 35 years inception.
For example of 15,736 drug addicts identified in 2008, 8,613 were relapsed addicts
compared to 7,123 new addicts. Whereas, the success rates of rehabilitation
in community cases in 2005 showed only 32.6% addicts manage to free themselves
from drug abuse after they received treatment and rehabilitation services. Why
this phenomenon happened. In fact, identification on how far self-efficacy rate
amongst relapsed addicts is significant as it is part of the effort to prevent
relapsed addiction tendency. Apart from that it is important indicator in reflecting
the change of behavior amongst the former addicts because this is the forecast
that would determine the initial ambition among them, to do something (not to
involved again with drugs) even though, they are facing with obstacle and challenges
while going on with their lives after their released.
Literature review: Self-efficacy is defined as the personal belief that
one can successfully perform a specific action underspecified conditions (Bandura,
1997). Self-efficacy can be conclude as one period an individual could act
efficiently when facing adversity which is the belief of ones ability
to plan and come out with a set of action that is needed in order to be able
to achieved certain level of performance through therapy process (Bandura,
The self-efficacy concept always being related to relapsed addiction tendency.
Chuah in his research found that inmates has no self-efficacy and enough skills
to be independent in their interaction with society. The different effect of
treatments on individuals showed that the problem with rehabilitation and treatment
is not easy to overcome because the possibility for those who were released
from drugs to go back to the old habit is high. In other words, rehabilitation
from the physical dependency might be easy but the rehabilitation from the physiological
aspect is not easy to be achieved even though addicts has been going through
rehabilitation and treatment programmes available.
Research done on sixty alcoholics showed individuals who have high self-efficacy
after rehabilitation treatment would be facing low risk to be addicts again
(Allsop et al., 2000). Studies conducted by Nurhazlina
and Azlinda found that one of the factors that cause addicts to use drugs again
because of no confidence that they can live without drugs. Most of them are
not strong enough withstand the trials that come and no willingness to stop
them back to re-use of drugs. Research findings are viewed in parallel with
the study by Cheung et al. (2003) that self-confidence
is important as a fortress to keep away from drugs.
The findings from the research done by Allsop et al.
(2000) is also parallel with findings from various researchers who stated
that an alcoholic who is undergoing rehabilitation treatment program and has
high self-efficacy is expected to give positive result towards rehabilitation
treatment to stop addicting to alcohol (Connors et al.,
1996; Greenfield et al., 2000; Rychtarik
et al., 1992; Solomon and Annis, 1990).
The self-efficacy theory that was introduced by Bandura
(1977) was used in this research to support self-efficacy variable. According
to the theory, individuals who has various success experience is expected to
have positive self-efficacy forecast in various situations compared to individuals
who has limited success experiences. According to Badura, individuals who feels
that they are able to have supportive social relationships are those who most
likely to have enough self-efficacy to psychologically functional.
This relationship would increase individuals self-efficacy in facing
challenges. This means that self-efficacy would also be functional directly
through social support influence in inducing positive behavior (Schwarzer,
1992). In other words, addicts for instance would be able to overcome their
problem effectively if they believed in the skills that they have and received
positive social supports.
The hope for success has important effect towards continuous efforts and diligence
on behavior changes and the hope can be intensify with the existence of strong
support system from surrounding society. Positive social support system would
be able to help intensify addicts self-efficacy to face challenges in going
on with their lives. Analytically, the objective for this research are:
||To identify self-efficacy level amongst relapsed addicts
||To determine relationship between addicts self-efficacy and relapsed
Ho1: There is no significant relation between self-efficacy and
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research was conducted using cross-sectional survey in quantitative and
analysed using statistic correlation test. According to an Malhotra
et al. (1996), the cross-sectional involves the data collection method
on one type of sample from the population that has to be experimented once based
on the existing respondents attribute. Meanwhile, correlation analysis
according to Cohen and Manion is being used to see the relation or influence
from one factor to another. Through correlation analysis, the idea on the strength
and the direction of relation that exist between two variable that being looked
into could be determined.
This research used questionnaires and significant tests to examine the hypotheses.
The effectiveness of the drugs rehabilitation program is being measured with
26 item of questions that has been developed by Bahaman, dll. with the rate
of the overall reability of the rehabilitation program of 0.905. The item used
for both scales was a Likert scale when the choices were arranged according
to suitability which was:
The level of the drug rehabilitation program were measured based on the minimum
score interpretation as shown in Table 1.
To determine whether there is a significant relationship between the overall
drug rehabilitation program on relapsed addiction, the correlation Pearson test
based on Guildford (1973)s Rule of Thumb was being
used like in Table 2.
Population and test sample: The population in this research refers to
relapsed addicts, the drug addicts that still undergoing the treatment and rehabilitation
services in Drug rehabilitation centers in Peninsular, Malaysia.
||Minimum score interpretation table for the effectiveness of
drugs rehabilitation program
|| Correlation Pearson table, Guildford (1973)s Rule of
|| Location of the sample (n = 400)
Two ways of sampling were used in this research. The 1st was stratified random
sampling where all element in the population was separated according to zones.
Two drug rehabilitation centers with the highest number of inmates were chosen
to represents each zone.
To fulfilled this research, eight rehabilitation centers, representing four
zones were selected to be the research samples (Table 3).
After the number of sample for each region (zone) were determined, the second
sampling (systematic random sampling) were used to select the members (relapsed
addicts) from region (zone) that involved. In determining the sample size, researchers
used sample size determination table by Cohen et al.
(2001) with view of the significant level at p<0.05 (significance level
Based on the sample size determination table if the population for the research is 4,552 respondents and the significance level needed is 0.05, the number of respondents need is 357. To minimise the mistakes and to strengthen the research, researchers has added the research sample to 400 respondents. According to Mohamad Najib by enlarging the sample size, it can raise the score validity and the reliability of any research.
Reliability: To build the measurement reliability in research, test methods through pilot study and internal consistency approach were used. In this research, its measurement reliability was to use coefficient Cronbach alpha to test each question item.
The thirty respondents from the Drug addiction and rehabilitation centers in Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia whose share the same characteristic with the real research subject were used to test the reliability of the questionnaires form. Whereas using the internal consistency approach each item that has low correlation rate and low reliability would be discharged from the test to raise the reliability rate. In this research the Cronbach alpha, >0.7 rate used as indicator for the research measurement.
Data analysis: Research data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Science for Windows (SPSS for Windows). Descriptive statistic were used to determined the frequency, percentage and average. Meanwhile, inference statistic using Pearson correlation test is to determine the relation between the effectiveness of drugs rehabilitation program and the relapsed addiction tendency.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Respondents background: Table 4 showed information on the respondents background. Most of the respondents involved in this research were from those ≥30s (85.6%). The minimum age amongst the respondents involved was 20 and the maximum age was 60. Most of them were Malays and Muslims (79.5%) and were bachelors or still unmarried (64.5%). The education background showed most respondents were minimally educated-primary school, education till secondary school education with Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (90.5%). About 47.3% of them used to work as temporary workers.
Level of relapsed drug addicts self-efficacy: Table 5 showed relapsed drug addicts self-efficacy level that has been examined. The minimum overall rate for relapsed drug addicts self-efficacy in this research is 1.96 with standard deviation of 0.56. The analysis done on 400 relapsed drug addicts showed that relapsed drug addicts self-efficacy level that has been examined were at medium to low level which is 86.3% with minimum score at 1.96. However, only 13.8% relapsed addicts that has been examined has high level of self-efficacy.
The findings of this research reflects that relapsed drug addicts are indeed
has less self-efficacy to plan their everyday lives, especially when facing
adversity, pressures and life challenges after they were released. The findings
also showed that 74.5% of the respondents admitted that they are easily defeated
in certain situation and another 53.8% admitted that they have less confidence
on their ability in doing something. This showed that the addicts spirit
and ability to change and avoid drugs are still at weaker level. As what has
been identified by some earlier researchers (Allsop et
al., 2000; Hawkins and Catalano, 1985; Dennis,
1989), this situation if left unattended would be able to influenced them
to get back to drug addiction.
|| Respondents Background (n = 400)
|| The level of self-efficacy on drug relapse (n = 400)
||Relationship between self-efficacy towards relapsed addiction
tendencies (n = 400)
Relationship between addicts self -efficacy and relapsed addiction tendencies: Table 6 showed the researchs result that there is a negative and significant relationship between self-efficacy (r = 0.790, p<0.05) with relapsed addiction tendencies. This negative relationship gave the indicator that the lower the self-efficacy level of the addicts, the higher their tendencies to become relapsed addicts.
In summary, this result showed that the self-efficacy factor is identified having association towards relapsed addiction tendencies. Thus, based on the research, the findings rejected the 1st Hypotheses (H1) that forecasted there is a significant relation between self-efficacy and relapsed addiction tendencies.
Allsop et al. (2000) in their research proves
that addicts with low self-efficacy are at risk to relapsed. As suggested by
Hawkins and Catalano (1985) if the addicts has high level of self-efficacy
coupled with family support, it would give positive result towards rehabilitation
treatment they received and indirectly prevented them from misusing drugs again.
In local context, research findings also supports the findings of Chuahs
research which found that most addicts has low self-efficacy and lack of skill
to enable them to be independent in their relationship with society, influenced
them to reuse drugs and getting into relapsed. In this study, the research findings
showed that most former addicts showed less strong self-efficacy to overcome
problems, easily giving up and could not solve problems in positive and smart
manner. Because of these issues, they are prone to reuse. Overall, it can be
concluded that low self-efficacy amongst former addicts are linked with their
own experiences of repeatedly failed to free themselves from drug abuse. For
example, 53.3% of respondents admitted that they are easily give it up if they
failed to learn new things. It means that most of them are easily giving it
up when facing failures in doing something (in the effort to stop misusing)
and the situation indirectly effected their self-efficacy to rehabilitated completely
from drug abuse.
This situation can be described and supports the self-efficacy theory founded
by Bandura (1977). According to him, individual who
has various success experiences is expected to have more positive self-efficacy
forecast in various situation compared to individual who has limited success
experiences. This theory gave the impression that a former drug addict who always
facing failures in his efforts to free himself from drug abuse would faced weak
spirit and self-efficacy as a result of the repeated failures. This situation
would get complicated when the surroundings are not supportive such as lukewarm
acceptance from the society (Fauziah and Naresh, 2009;
Mahmood et al., 1999; Hawkins
and Catalano, 1985) and the difficulties to find jobs to enable them to
starts their new lives (Ibrahim, 2008; Marks,
According to Bandura (1977), individual who felt that
he is able to get supportive social relationships is more likely to have enough
self-efficacy to function psychologically. This relationship would enhanced
ones self confidence in facing challenges in his life. It means self-efficacy
has roles and functioning directly through the influence of social support in
encouraging an individual to act positively. In other words, former addicts
should be able to overcome problems more effective if they believed the skills
they have within themselves and receives positive social supports from their
surroundings such as from friends, families, immediate neighbors and society
at large. It means, positive social support system would be able to enhance
self-efficacy of an addict to continue with life and face adversities and challenges
in the future. Meanwhile, Hawkins and Catalano (1985)
thought that acceptance and supports from society would be able to help enhance
self-efficacy and hope amongst addicts to refrain themselves from misusing drugs.
However in the research context, it was disappointing that most former addicts
does not received encouraging social supports from the society (Ibrahim,
2008; Schwarzer, 1992) that made them more alienated
and their self-efficacy to continue to rehabilitate, plunged. This situation
is the one that influencing them to reusing drugs and becoming relapsed addicts.
The problem of relapsed addiction in Malaysia is a big challenge to the nation. This problem if not handled effectively would be able to damage the individuals involves and it even could damage the society and nations harmony. Thus to handle this problem from becoming more complicated is suggested that the modules prepared in Narcotic rehabilitation centers in Malaysia should stress more on how to mould or to form strategy to develop more steady self-efficacy amongst the relapsed drug addicts so they would be able to better manage their lives after their release from drug rehabilitation centers.
It is because the research findings showed weak self-efficacy amongst addicts
is one factor that has significant relationship towards relapsed addiction.
Meanwhile, research done by Fauziah and Kumar (2009)
showed that self-efficacy factor is the biggest contributing factor (62.4%)
towards relapsed addiction amongst addicts in Malaysia, compared to societys
factor (2.3%) and familys factor (0.7%). With efforts to enhance the preparation
of total human development strategy amongst relapsed drug addicts, it could
increase addicts self-efficacy to live without drugs. It means that serious
efforts should be done to restructure weak self-efficacy to enable the addicts
to be stronger when facing life challenges after their release. Although, the
government of Malaysia had tried their level best through many ways to curb
drug addiction problem, the efforts would be in vain without supports from the
community to share the burden to fight against drug abuse. Thus, community support
share the effort to help and guide addicts is much needed. Community support
would inject new breath amongst the addicts to continue their journey for new
and better beginning, free from drugs.
The researchers have been supported generously by Institute for Social Science Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia and a National Anti-Drug Agency, Malaysia. The researchers would like to express their sincere appreciation for all the support provided.