Authors : T.S.L. Ngamo , M.B. Ngassoum , P.M. Mapongmestsem , W.F. Noudjou , F. Malaisse , E. Haubruge , G. Lognay , H. Kouninki and T. Hance
Abstract: Post harvest losses of crops during storage are mainly due to insects. To prevent their stored products from insects attacks, farmers often used in the past some traditional tools which are nowadays disappearing without sufficient valorisation. The present research aims to make an inventory of stored grains pests present and of the botanicals used in the protection of stored grains. From these investigations, it clearly shows that, Insects associated to stored grains in Northern Cameroon are primary or secondary pests, detritivores, predators or parasitoids feeding on other insects mainly pests. The major pests of stored grains are the weevils Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for cereals and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) for legumes. To protect their stored grains from losses, 29 plants are introduced in the granaries during their filling with crops, 12 of these are aromatic plants producing essential oil by hydrodistaillation. Nine of these essential oil have insecticidal properties towards S. zeamais, S. oryzae and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) which are the most important pests of cereal in grains and in flour. In order to designate an essential oil for the pest control by farmers, the criteria define was the relation between the insecticidal activity and the rate of extraction of essential oil from plant material. With this consideration, essential oil of Lippia rugosa (Verbenaceae) is among the 4 most used the suitable tool to prevent attacks of S. zeamais and S. oryzae. In the other hand to control T. castaneum, essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) and L. rugosa are adviced.
T.S.L. Ngamo , M.B. Ngassoum , P.M. Mapongmestsem , W.F. Noudjou , F. Malaisse , E. Haubruge , G. Lognay , H. Kouninki and T. Hance , 2007. Use of Essential Oils of Aromatic Plants as Protectant of Grains During Storage . Agricultural Journal, 2: 204-209.