Abstract: We immobilized 18 captive, adult, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a combination of either 1) xylazine/ketamine (XK; 1.6+0.1 mg kg 1 xylazine and 7.8+0.3 mg kg 1 ketamine antagonized with 2.1+0.1 mg kg 1 tolazoline), 2) Medetomidine/Ketamine (MK; 0.075+0.01 mg kg 1 medetomidine and 2.1+0.2 mg kg 1 ketamine antagonized with 0.37+0.0 mg kg 1 atipamezole), 3) Medetomidine/Ketamine/Butorphanol (MKB; 0.072+0.01 mg kg 1 medetomidine, 2.1+0.2 mg kg 1 ketamine and 0.1+ 0.0 mg kg 1 butorphanol antagonized with 0.36+0.0 mg kg 1 atipamezole and 10.3+1.2 mg kg 1 naltrexone), 4) Medetomidine/Ketamine/Tiletamine-zolazepam-A (MKT-A; 0.063+0.0 mg kg 1 medetomidine, 0.9+0.1 mg kg 1 ketamine and 2.0+0.1 mg kg 1 tiletamine-zolazepam antagonized with 0.31+0.0 mg kg 1 atipamezole ), or 5) Medetomidine/Ketamine/Tiletamine-zolazepam-B (MKT-B; 0.067+0.0 mg kg 1 medetomidine, 1.4+0.1 mg kg 1 ketamine and 1.1+0.1 mg kg 1 tiletamine-zolazepam antagonized with 0.34+0.0 mg kg 1 atipamezole). We measured times from injection to first effect, sternal recumbency and lateral recumbency. We measured SpO2, heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature of each deer at 20 and 40 min after lateral recumbency. Forty-five minutes after lateral recumbency, deer were given appropriate antagonist drugs (half i.v., half i.m.). All drug combinations except the XK dose produced lateral recumbency in the deer. Hyperthermia occurred in the XK, MKB and MK groups. The MKT-A and MKT-B treatments resulted in acceptable physiological parameters, rapid induction and quick recovery. Combining ketamine (for a relatively shorter recovery time), tiletamine-zolazepam (for rapid induction) and medetomidine (for synergistic effects and increased relaxation) may optimize induction and recovery times in white-tailed deer.
Lisa I. Muller , David A. Osborn , Edward C. Ramsay , Tom Doherty , Brad F. Miller , Robert J. Warren and Karl V. Miller , 2007. Use of Xylazine/Ketamine or Medetomidine Combined with Either Ketamine, Ketamine/Butorphanol, or Ketamine/Telazol for Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) . Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 6: 435-440.