Research Journal of Applied Sciences

Year: 2014
Volume: 9
Issue: 12
Page No. 962 - 967

Toluene Exposure and its Association to Hippuric Acid and Non-Systematic Symptoms among Outdoor Workers in Urban Area, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors : Tanasorn Tunsaringkarn, Tassanee Prueksasit, Saowanee Semathong, Anusorn Rungsiyothin and Kalaya Zapaung

Abstract: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are mainly from motor vehicle emissions which cause of serious problems of air pollution in Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand. Toluene is the most abundance of aromatic hydrocarbon found in ambient air. This study aimed to evaluate toluene exposures and its association to non-systematic symptoms among outdoor workers in Pathumwan District, central Bangkok. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban area of Bangkok during September 2012 to March 2013. Two hundred and eighty seven outdoor workers of security guardsmen, motorcycle drivers and street venders were included in this study for interviewing and urine collection. Thirty six ambient air samples were collected for toluene analyses by Gas Chromatography with Flam Ionized Detector (GC/FID). The results showed that average ambient air toluene was 91.1 μg/m3 which street vender was the highest exposed as well as average hippuric acid level was 0.4 g/gCr. Non-systematic symptoms prevalence of workers were headache, dizziness, weakness and throat irritation at 42.5, 16.6, 36.6 and 15.3%, respectively which they were highest in street venders. Toluene exposure level was significantly associated to hippuric acid (p = 0.001) and non-systematic symptoms of dizziness and throat irritation (p<0.01). However, hippuric acid was not associated to any non-systematic symptoms. There were trended higher toluene exposures at roadside area of street venders and motor cycle drivers than security guardsmen in university area as well as non-specific symptoms. There were the associations between ambient air toluene level and urinary biomarker of hippuric acid and non-systematic symptom of dizziness.

How to cite this article:

Tanasorn Tunsaringkarn, Tassanee Prueksasit, Saowanee Semathong, Anusorn Rungsiyothin and Kalaya Zapaung, 2014. Toluene Exposure and its Association to Hippuric Acid and Non-Systematic Symptoms among Outdoor Workers in Urban Area, Bangkok, Thailand. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 9: 962-967.

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