Authors : A.M. King`ori
Abstract: This study reviews the uses of egg albumen and egg yolk. The albumin and yolk account for 60 and 30% of the egg, respectively. Their chemical composition make the egg to be of a high nutritional value to man. Egg albumen (egg white) is a source of complete protein and it contains all the amino acids required by the body for protein synthesis. Although, egg whites are a good source of low-fat, high-protein nutrition, a small number of people cannot eat them because of egg allergy associated with some proteins. Egg allergy is more common among infants than adults and most children outgrow it by the age of five. There is currently no cure for egg allergy. It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and avoidance of foods that may be contaminated with egg. Egg albumen protein (Lysozyme and EDTA) is effective against Salmonella typhimurium and Avidin-Biotin System is used as a diagnostic tool. Egg white has been used in the manufacture of edible packing films that could be used for water soluble packets for ingredients in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Egg white is fining agent that can be used in the clarification and stabilization of wine that involves removing insoluble and suspended materials that cause a wine to be cloudy. Egg white is a natural antioxidant that is added to ground meat to decrease oxidation during cooking. Egg albumen is used by artists as a binder for pigments as an ingredient of waterproof glue and as a varnish. Egg yolk is a major source of fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. It is the part of the fertilized egg which feeds the developing embryo. The hens diet influences the fatty acids, minerals and vitamins content in eggs. The cholesterol content in egg yolk is significantly reduced by dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA). Many vaccines for infectious diseases are produced in fertile chicken eggs (yolk). The vaccines are used for disease control in humans and livestock. However, a method of vaccine production has been developed that is less cumbersome than dealing with chicken eggs and the vaccine production is easy. Egg yolk is used in painting as a component of egg-tempera to make liqueurs and for extraction of egg oil used in cosmetic, nutritional and medicinal uses. Egg oil and lecithin from egg yolk are used in biotechnology, food and pharmaceutical industries. Egg yolk is used in the production of egg-yolk agar that is used in identification of Clostridia. Therefore, the egg comprises of chemicals and components that have multiple uses in biotechnology (tissue culture), chemical, food, pharmaceutical and art (painting and photography) industries.
A.M. King`ori , 2012. Uses of Poultry Eggs: Egg Albumen and Egg Yolk. Research Journal of Poultry Sciences, 5: 9-13.