Abstract: This research examined the moderating effects of gender on the structural model of innovation orientation among university undergraduates in Malaysia. This research connected the constructs relationships to the gender moderating effect in order to explain innovation orientation phenomenon and to confirm the Gender Constant Theory. The research employed the multiple group model comparison technique using AMOS. For female (n = 1.522), all seven path coefficients associated with the paths linking the four antecedents to innovation orientation and paths linking the three antecedents to entrepreneurial self-efficacy are significant. For male (n = 985), four path coefficients are significant: innovation motivation to entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial orientation to entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial orientation to innovation orientation and innovation motivation to innovation orientation. Male demonstrated a significantly stronger path coefficient from innovation motivation to entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Male: β = 0.374, Female: β = 0.175) whereas females demonstrated a significantly stronger path coefficient from creativity to entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Male: β = 0.039, Female: β = 0.297). Male structural model explained 65.0% variance. Female structural model explained 59.4% variance. The research ascertains that innovation orientation model is moderated by genders and thus confirms the Gender Constant Theory.
Norfarah Nordin, Mohd Ali Samsudin and Ahmad Nurulazam Md. Zain, 2015. Gender Moderated Model of Innovation Orientation among Malaysian Undergraduates. The Social Sciences, 10: 1645-1653.